The Jacksons of Sembawang

30 07 2019

Sembawang is one of just a few places in Singapore in which still holds the charm of a bygone era. The modern world, dominated by the sea of concrete is however, knocking increasing at its door; its latest convert being the the wonderful settings that lent context to (old) Admiralty House. The National Monument, built as the home of Commander of the huge British naval base in 1940, has seen the isolation it was provided with taken away in the effort to provide residents in the area with a sports and community hub. Similarly threatened with modernisation is the area by the coast just east of Sembawang Park and once an area of idyllic seaside villages where the villages of the new world have started to take root. One project that quite thankfully bucks the trend is the recently announced dementia-care village at Gibraltar Crescent. Currently the subject of a URA tender exercise, the village will make use of existing structures inherited from the days of the naval base and (hopefully) preserve some of the environment that the structures now find themselves in – at least for a 30-year period following the award of the tender.

A window into the past.

A quiet area of seemingly typical colonial residences,  a closer examination of the buildings of Gibraltar Crescent will reveal that they are actually quite unique even if they bear quite a fair bit of resemblance to and have many of the features of the residences that have come to be described as “black and white houses”. With the exception of a building that served as the former Dockyard Theatre or the “Japanese Theatre”, the longer than typical structures are raised on concrete columns of a height sufficient to permit a person to walk comfortably underneath the floorboards. Wood is also the main material on the buildings and masonry seems to have been used quite sparingly and used, besides in the supporting columns, in wet areas and in the ground level service structures. Quite interesting because of the wood featured in the buildings’ exterior walls, the structures tended to look more black than white in the days of the naval base as black bituminous paints that weatherproofed the wood.

A view towards the former Dockyard Theatre – a uniquely built structure along Gibraltar Crescent. It is the only large building along the street that is not raised on columns.

There are quite good reasons for the features adopted in the buildings, which were among the first to be erected by the contractor for the naval base, Sir John Jackson & Co, for the purposes of housing its European staff. Known as The “Jacksons” for this reason, they were completed in mid-1929. Features found in other “black and whites”, such as the raised supports, generous verandahs and openings, pitched roofs and wooden floorboards, kept the interiors cool, airy and bright. Although now among the oldest “permanent” residences in the former naval base, as well as being the first to have been purpose built, the buildings were intended as quasi-permanent residences and hence the extensive use of wood.

The Jacksons are raised on concrete supports and feature wooden walls except in the service areas and wet spaces.

Two “Jacksons” under construction in April 1929 (online at National Archives of Singapore).

It is also interesting to note how the various residences, while similar in appearance, have been laid out in what seems to be two distinct arrangements. One type seems to have had more of a layout with more common spaces and was perhaps used to house the lower ranking staff. This design has a centrally arranged service area and besides the access staircases at the back has two arranged at each end in the buildings’ front. The other design seems to have been subdivided into individual units, each with a service area and with what appears to have been an access staircase at both the front and the back.

A unit with a layout that lends itself to a more dorm-like use.

A Jackson which would have been subdivided into three individual units – each with its own service area.

Reports relating to the construction of the base, point to it being one of the largest engineering projects in the world at the time. The contractor employed a daily average of 3,000 coolies and had at least 30 European staff at any one point supervising through the 8 year period (from 1928 to 1936) over which the main contract was executed. The reports point to some 23 residences were built for European staff, along with numerous coolie lines. The residences were eventually handed over the the Admiralty and several among the 23 survived including the structures that are now the subject of the tender survived the war.

The front of one of the Jacksons with projections that would have served as staircase landings.

An exception may have been the Dockyard Theatre, the site of which, based on older maps seems to have been occupied by another of the “Jacksons”. Thought to have been constructed during the occupation – hence the references to it as the “Japanese Theatre” – the multi-use hall is built on a ground-level platform of concrete and is also built primarily of wood. The theatre was used as a to hold live performances including pantomimes and performances by the Naval Base Singers, as well as serving as a hall in which badminton was played in the period after the war until the British pull-out in 1971.

One of two access staircases at the rear in the first type of residence.

The verandah of the second type with privacy screens at what would have been the boundaries of the individual units.

Inside one of the residences.

Inside one of the residences.

Inside one of the residences. 

News related to the tender for the dementia care village:













4 responses

30 07 2019
Stanley Fields

Really nice piece. I so appreciate receiving your emails.

Kind regards,

Sent from my iPhone

Stanley W. Fields 503-407-6840

Those who tell the stories rule society — Plato


31 07 2019
Jennifer Howe

Back in the fifties, I lived in the Bukit Sembawang Rubber Estate bungalow, at the top of a hill and overlooking the Seletar Inlet. My father , John Godber, was Manager of the estate, When he retired, Douglas Hiorns succeeded him. I understand that when he left a woman called Ms. Goh operated an antique’s business there. The bungalow was initially owned by Mr. Nee Soon. I believe that during the war the bungalow was use as a convalescent hospital for Japanese officers.

Latterly, the bungalow and surrounding ulu was taken over by the Miinistry of Defence. It was heavily fenced and the penalties for going beyond the fence were draconian. I believe that the bungalow was slated to be demolished to make way for a new highway.

Just beyond Nee Soon Village at the 11th Milestone Thomson Road, It was a large white, two-storey stucco building . No glass in the windows, just bamboo chiks and downstairs, there were wooden doors which the house boy shut every night.. It was always cool up there. Khatib Bungalow was just a half mile or so down the road, but we could reach it by walking through the rubber trees.

IThe garden was huge. My mother was unusual in that she cultivated a fenced in vegetable garden . The fence was festooned with honalulu. Sometimes my father turned on huge floodlights and we played croquet on the front lawn at night. During monsoon rains, we children and the saice’s children would run about on the lawn splashing one another

I wonder if you have ever seen the place? I would be curious to know whether my home on the hill still exists.

I enjoy your column. It’s well-written, well -researched and the pictures are lovely

Regards, Jennifer Howe (nee Godber)

31 07 2019
Jerome Lim, The Wondering Wanderer

Hi Jennifer,

Thank you for sharing all those wonderful memories and also the information on the Bukit Sembawang Plantation Manager’s bungalow, and also for your very kind feedback.

If the bungalow that you mention is where I think that it is – off Sembawang Road and about 2/3’s of a mile north of the old Nee Soon Village, it is still there. The house isn’t with the Ministry of Defence but with the Singapore Land Authority. I tried obtaining permission to visit the house a few years back but was advised that visiting it would bot be possible as it is surrounded by the Ministry of Defence’s training grounds. Would you happen to have photographs of the house?



18 08 2019
Deborah Mannion

A Dementia Care Village is a great idea, I lived in Gibraltar Crescent in 1969, and revisited a few years ago, a wonderful place, thank goodness someone with foresight is securing something of Singapore’s past for the future.

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